Seattle University


Cell and Molecular Biology

Faculty Mentor

Heather Brown

Faculty Editor

Heather Brown

Student Editor

Riley Flanagan


Around the world, there are nearly 20,000 species of bees, with roughly 3,600 of these species residing in North America (Xerces Society, 2015). However, nearly one in six bee species has already gone regionally extinct, while over 40% are vulnerable to extinction (Center for Biological Diversity, 2018). Agriculture, habitat loss, pesticide use, climate change, and competition and disease from non-native honeybees are just a few factors contributing to the loss of bees who are native to the Americas (Koh et al., 2015). While urban developments contribute to habitat loss, cities can aid in counteracting the effects of urbanization by creating garden refuges for bees (Wilson & Jamieson, 2019). With the help of urban campuses, cities can produce valuable habitats for supporting bee communities. This guide is intended to help improve urban campuses’ native bee conservation efforts by providing resources and guidelines. It is important to note that this guide largely focuses on the Pacific Northwest region; however, there are resources provided throughout this document for other regions to modify and apply the same guidelines. Thus, the overarching aim of this project is to create a single document with the information and tools required for implementing and maintaining sustainable habitats for native bee conservation on urban campuses, monitoring, and providing public educational opportunities.