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Seldom has Islam been understood in mainstream discourse as a means of achieving gender equality and resisting patriarchal powers. However, Indonesian Muslim women organizers did just that. This project analyzes how patriarchal culture, colonialism, the state, and religious powers have shaped current gender norms regarding women in the public and private sphere since the twentieth century. Centering how Javanese Muslim women have used Islam to resist patriarchal authorities, I analyze sociological, historical, and gender and sexuality studies. This project challenges conservative interpretations of Islam used within Muslim communities to limit women’s rights, and challenges Islamophobic misconceptions that frame the religion as misogynistic. The case of Indonesia is important. The extensive history of Muslim women leaders has only recently been highlighted because most literature on Muslim women centers the Arab world. My project contributes to studies on Muslim women’s leadership and more broadly aims to improve their ability to organize transnationally.