Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Ministry (DMin)

First Advisor

Edward Donalson

Second Advisor

Alexandra Kovats

Third Advisor

Jeney Park-Hearn


The purpose of this study was to explore how listening without judging and spiritual direction can create more opportunities for outreach ministers to positively engage with people being viewed as different or as “the stranger.” Although there have been many studies about providing spiritual direction to people identified as experiencing addiction, incarceration, being unhoused, and more, this study was motivated by observing the pain caused to people receiving services in outreach ministry due to being viewed as “the stranger.” In this study, I explored how outreach ministers can work more effectively to engage compassionately with the stranger and begin the healing for the pain caused by the hurtful and often unconscious actions taken toward anyone viewed as a stranger.