Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Ministry (DMin)

First Advisor

Sharon H. Callahan

Second Advisor

Christie Eppler

Third Advisor

Linda Smith; Edward Donalson


This qualitative research project explores how Muslim, Jewish, and Christian women with intersecting identities (social locations) of race, gender, religion, ethnicity, national origin, indigenous heritage, social class, age, and ability live with amid micro and macroaggressions. Existing research on trauma and resilience and the theological frameworks that undergirded the project are presented. Additionally, hate crime statistics and a brief history of hate crime legislation are discussed to illustrate patterns and trends and to expose knowledge gaps caused by unreported and underreported hate crimes (Anti-Defamation League, 2018a, p. 1). Furthermore, this project illuminates the impact of non-criminal micro and macroaggressions—either intentional or non-intentional—on individuals who do not belong to the local or global dominant groups.

Through a process of semi-structured interviews, eleven diverse women—representing the three Abrahamic faiths—were invited to share about the best and hardest aspects of living in King County, WA; their relationship with God; how they respond to harm and adversity; how their faith informs their response; and symbols that for them mean all will be okay.

After transcribing, coding, and analyzing the results, the researcher developed a definition of resilience that integrates and builds on existing concepts of resilience. For the purposes of this research, resilience is defined as: living and loving amidst adversity.